How to make a transformer?
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A transformer is one of the main parts of many electrical appliances. Transformers are used in a variety of devices where there is a need for voltage conversion. The main function of the transformer is the conversion of electric current. How to make a transformer with your own hands is a rather useful and interesting question. The self-made transformer can be useful in the most different situations, but often it is claimed as an element of a certain electronic device.
What is a transformer and how it works
A transformer is a static electromagnetic device that has two (or more) inductive windings designed to convert an electrical voltage without changing the current frequency. The transformer consists of two coils wound on a ferromagnetic core, or a core of soft magnetic material.
It is also worth explaining the principle of operation of the transformer, but it would be better to do this in a simple, understandable language.As already known, the transformer consists of two inductors, one of them takes the voltage at the input, the other produces the converted voltage. Passing through the first coil, the electric current creates an electromotive force, which is transmitted to the secondary coil, where the output and get the modified voltage. Voltage changes are directly dependent on the properties of both the primary coil and the secondary. This explanation is not detailed, since, to describe the principle of operation of a transformer, one article will not be enough.
Before proceeding to the assembly of the transformer, it is necessary to carry out calculations of its basic properties. You can not assemble a transformer "just because", at random and with random properties. Remember, transformers work with electric current and neglecting certain assembly rules and safety rules can lead to dire consequences.
So, how to do all the calculations? You can study many articles in the network (for example, read the article How to calculate a transformer), recall the old school textbooks on physics. Having spent a lot of time studying the formulas and counting them, you will probably relocate something to collect.But there is an easier way to calculate the properties of a transformer - use a special calculator program.
One of these calculators can be found on the website. Calculator allowscalculate the parameters of two types of transformers: with armor and core cores. The program calculates for both the step-down and the step-up transformer. Enter the required data (voltage on the first winding and voltage on the second), select the type of transformer, the primary current and other indicators. By clicking on the "Answer" button, you will receive a calculation for each of the transformer windings: wire section, number of turns, parameters of the core itself, calculation of power, current and voltage.
On the website you can find even more different calculators for amateurs. Among the many programs you can easily find some good calculators for calculating transformers.
After all the necessary calculations, you can proceed to the assembly of the transformer. Before you begin, stock up with all the necessary materials: purchase coils with copper wire, transformer or capacitor paper, and also the cores themselves.
There are several forms of cores:
- Ring core - the simplest, cheapest and most efficient of all.types of cores. Its only drawback is the complexity of winding copper wire. Description of the method of winding such a transformer can be found on the website.
- There are so-called E and I cores. They are more expensive, but winding a coil on such a core is much faster and easier.
- The most expensive and difficult to manufacture is the armor core. It consists of two halves, which must exactly fit to each other, thanks to which the core almost completely covers the transformer winding.
The process of winding wiring is quite tedious and monotonous. It requires a certain concentration and concentration.
- It is desirable that all the turns of the wire tightly matched to each other.
- Each layer of wire must be insulated - glue over the layer of thin electrical tape, transformer paper or capacitor paper.
- Depending on the type of transformer and the chosen core, they start to wind the second coil. It is always different from the first wire thickness and the number of turns. If the design provides for winding the second coil over the first one, the first coil is covered with several layers of electrical tape,leaving only the wire leads to connect to the wires. After that, proceed to the winding of the secondary coil.
After several hours of operation, the transformer will be ready.
These are general transformer manufacturing principles. How to make a step-up transformer or step-down? It's all very simple - first you need to make calculations using the calculator program in order to know which wire is best to use. The difference between the step-down and step-up transformer is in the characteristics of the primary and secondary windings. In a step-up, the primary winding is made of thicker wire and has fewer turns. In the lowering, everything is done the other way around - the primary winding has more turns and is made of thinner wire.
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