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What is a short circuit?

Tatyana Ionina
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What is a short circuit?

Often we hear: "short", "short circuit", "... because of a short circuit." How to understand this phrase and what is a short circuit?

Short circuit detection

A short circuit is a connection between two different points in an electrical circuit that have different potentials. In addition, a short circuit is a phenomenon in which the load resistance value is less than the internal resistance value. A short circuit disrupts the normal operation of electrical devices and is not provided for by the design of the devices. Short circuit occurs mainly due to breakdown (damage) of the insulation of current-carrying links or due to mechanical contact of current-carrying elements without insulation.

Varieties of closures

Types of short circuits (short circuit):

  • Single phase short circuit - one phase to ground or neutral wire closes. Single-phase short circuit occurs in life more often than others.
  • Two-phase short circuit- two phases are closed on each other. In the case of a two-phase short circuit, the voltages and currents of both of the two factors are different.
  • Two-phase short circuit on the ground - two phases are closed together and connected to the ground. This type of short circuit is possible only in networks where a low-grounded neutral is provided.
  • Three-phase short circuit - simultaneous closure of three phases at once. The most problematic in all respects the type of short circuit.

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